1.Introduction

 

The CyprusGas2EU project is the only candidate PCI project that ends the energy isolation of an EU Member State. This gas PCI is clearly in line with the conclusions of the European Council of the 4 February 2011, where the Council noted that, “No EU Member State should remain isolated from the European gas and electricity networks after 2015, or see its energy security jeopardized by lack of the appropriate connections”.

 

The project is promoted by the Ministry of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism of the Republic of Cyprus (MECIT). The CyprusGas2EU project was included in the 2nd PCI list of the EU under priority corridor ‘Southern Gas Corridor’ with the description “Removing internal bottlenecks in Cyprus to end isolation and to allow for the transmission of gas from the Eastern Mediterranean region”. The CyprusGas2EU project was part of the 7.3 cluster of projects in the 2nd PCI list in which the EastMed pipeline is a participating project.

 

In the 2nd PCI list, the project promoter of CyprusGas2EU (MECIT) was evaluating all options for gas supply to Cyprus (previously 7 options covering either imported or indigenous gas) but for the 3rd PCI list all efforts will focus on the these two technological options:

A Floating technological solution (FSRU) for LNG imports to Cyprus (gas supply solution), including reception, storage and regasification for liquefied natural gas either onshore or nearshore in Cyprus. A Gas Storage facility to facilitate a Buffer for the internal gas pipeline to EAC power station and to enable security of supply for the FSRU and other gas projects such as the EastMed pipeline.

 

The CyprusGas2EU project is already included in the latest TYNDP of ENTSOG (TRA-N-1146) which is a prerequisite for a project in order to be approved as a PCI candidate project.

 

The Ministerial Council of Cyprus has mandated the Natural Gas Company of Cyprus DEFA (CYGAS) to proceed with the FSRU option by 2020. The 2020 target is linked to the obligation of the Republic of Cyprus to reduce its emissions and adhere to environmental commitments.

 

A Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) for this option is under preparation by MECIT in collaboration with DEFA and other stakeholders. Gas imported from these options will be supplied initially to the main power station in Vassilikos and later gas will be transmitted to the other power stations at Moni and Dhekelia or other possible Independent power producers (IPPs). DEFA (CYGAS) has already prepared preliminary studies for gas supply network to main power stations under EEP support. Also MECIT has recently received CEF funding to proceed with studies related to the development of the Natural Gas Market and related infrastructure.

 

These elements of the national gas infrastructure system in Cyprus, will be designed to provide security of supply together with the EastMed pipeline and to cover the local demand for power generation and other uses (e.g. indrustrial, transport, heating etc.).  Consequently, it will lead to the end of the energy isolation of the island and also to market integration synergies and to interoperability with other Member States (e.g. Greece, Italy) and other regional markets.

 

For the EastMed pipeline feasibility studies have already been completed and additional environmental studies (RMS) are under preparation. Cyprus, Greece, Israel and Italy agreed on the 3rd of April 2017 to reinforce their cooperation, forming a quadri-lateral working group with the aim to monitor and support the development of the EastMed Pipeline Project and to identify terms of a necessary intergovernmental agreement to expedite project realization.

 

During a Ministerial Summit in Tel Aviv, in the presence of EU Commissioner for Climate Action & Energy Miguel Arias Cañete, the Energy Ministers of the four countries signed a Joint Declaration on EastMed, acknowledging that the recent gas discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, together with the potential for additional substantial discoveries, will likely transform the Region to a significant gas exporter to global gas markets.

 

PROJECT IMPACT

The TEN-E Regulation Criteria for Gas PCIs are the following: security of supply, market integration, competition, sustainability.

 

The project CyprusGas2EU will contribute to market integration as it will enable Cyprus to connect with the Trans-European gas networks. It will improve Cyprus's security of energy supply and diversification of imported energy sources and fuels. The project will support objectives of sustainability as it will contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in the island and prepare a low carbon and competitive economy. The project has direct impacts in Greece and indirect impacts in Italy and Bulgaria.

 

PROJECT PROMOTER: Ministry of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism (www.mcit.gov.cy)

MEMBER STATES INVOLVED: Cyprus (CY) and Greece (GR). The project is complementary to the EastMed pipeline and it has indirect impacts to regional investment plans in Italy and Bulgaria.

CONTACT US: For additional information send an email to responsible contact person: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

2.Project Description:

 

Based on the strategic planning for the Energy Sector of the Republic of Cyprus DEFA has received, from the Council of Ministers,  a new mandate to proceed with the implementation of a project for the introduction of LNG.

 

The necessary infrastructure is expected to include the following:

 

  1. Marine Works: Jetty for FSRU berthing and LNG transfer activities and an emergency shelter for the FSRU  

 

  1. Floating Storage and Regasification Unit (FSRU) – Gas export system and Loading Arm (inclusive of; meters, Gas compressors, filters, heaters, venting system, quick connection, export arm pipelines), permanently berthed in Vassilikos bay

 

  1. Jetty borne Gas Pipeline (inclusive of; gas pipelines, valves) connecting the FSRU to the receiving point onshore

 

  1. Onshore Gas Pipeline (inclusive of; pipeline, inline valves, cathodic protection systems, civil works), connecting the receiving point onshore to the downstream delivery point

 

  1. Pipeline Storage Array (inclusive of; inlet and outlet manifolds, inline valves, protection systems, civil works), able to store Natural Gas in gaseous form in the required operational pressure ranges adjacent to Vassilikos power station

 

  1. Onshore Above Ground Installation (AGI) – Metering Station

 

 

3.Infrastructure Elements

3.1. Marine Works

  1. Jetty

 

The proposed works include the construction of a trestle/jetty for the permanent berthing, and mooring as well as the loading/unloading operations, and Ship to Ship refilling operations of an FSRU.

 

There are a number of considerations for the selection of the jetty. More specifically these are:

 

  1. The FSRU is a strategic import gas terminal for Cyprus and the development of a dedicated Jetty will serve the strategic target of the Republic

 

  1. The water depth makes the (submerged) turret option less suitable as the sea depth is rather limited.

 

  1. The 360o movement radius of a FSRU moored in this way may block the route of LNGCs and other cargo ships operating close to existing infrastructure.

 

  1. Particular attention structural requirements of the interfaces. The scantlings of the turret structure (internal/external) and the hull integration of the mooring support structure as well as the efficient free operation of all bearings in the mooring system is of paramount importance to the integrity of the complete design. Thus this is an option for newly constructed FSRUs limiting the options (rendering essentially the acquisition of a second-hand unit at much lower cost infeasible).

 

  1. Especially older vessels will require particular strengthening if retrofitted with such a system.

 

  1. There are even newly constructed units that have been fitted originally with a turret system (APL) operate at jetties.

 

  1. The jetty will allow a wider range of FSRUs to be eligible for acquisition relative to the turret which requires the particular interface.

 

  1. Even more difficult are the subsea (buoy) turrets. These maybe even hard to find if disconnected in bad weather

 

  1. Turrets are preferred to offshore units if far away from shore. For nearshore installations or in not so difficult waters, the jetty is better and cheaper.

 

  1. Jetty installation is less prone to sloshing due to near shore operation. The FSRU will always have the option here to be sheltered in the port.

 

  1. At a jetty, if required there can be additional FSUʼs for increased storage volume with much smaller investment.

 

  • Remote installations require additional equipment for transfer (helicopters?) and a full living accommodation on board. Via truck supplies could be delivered to a jetty moored FSRU.

 

The jetty is located west of the main breakwater of Limassol  Port – terminal 2 (Vasiliko), at a distance of about  1,3km. The trestle runs offshore in a north – south direction for about 750 meters before turning south-west 430 meters to form the FSRU berth.  A future extension of the jetty by another 310m, in order to accommodate an LNGC Carrier is foreseen.

 

The trestle is approximately 14 meter wide. The trestle pile cap is supported on vertical steel pipe piles at intervals of 18 – 20m. The pile caps, made of reinforced concrete, support a 5 meter-wide roadway and 9 meter wide pipe rack, which is wide enough to accommodate both cryogenic (LNG) and natural gas pipes. Pipe expansion loop bents were assumed every 300 meters.

 

The orientation of the berth is about 220 degrees North, so that the ships are aligned into the prevailing direction of wind and waves. Thus, according to the proposed layout, the depth at the inner berth is between 15 and 18 meters while the outer (future) berth ends up being in about 22 meters.

 

The berth will consist of a loading platform of dimensions 30 meters by 35 meters. The loading platform substructure and deck is supported by piles. Ships berth against four breasting dolphins. The breasting dolphins will be equipped with fenders and quick release mooring hooks to accommodate the LNGC’s spring lines.

 

There are also six (6) mooring dolphins for each berth, each mooring dolphin equipped with a quick release mooring hook.

 

  1. Emergency Shelter for the FSRU

 

The proposed extension is envisaged east of the existing basin of the Port and includes the following works:

 

  • Dredging to -15m CD over an area of 300.000 sq.m. in order to create the required navigational depths . This area includes the navigational approach channel, the berthing location and the maneuvering area.

 

  • Extension of the existing main breakwater by about 650m.

 

  • Construction of the leeside breakwater protecting the port basin.

 

  • A berthing place on the north side of the new port basin. This berth will be made up of a group of individual structures consisting of four breasting dolphins, three mooring dolphins and three mooring points established on the existing land area. Furthermore, interconnecting walkways and an approach trestle will be constructed.
    • Breasting dolphins are equipped with fenders and two of them are equipped with Quick Release Hooks. The breasting dolphins are arranged symmetrically about the midship since no loading platform is envisaged. The breasting dolphins will be supported by driven steel pipe piles
    • Mooring dolphins will support mooring fittings to secure the vessel’s head, stern and breast mooring lines. Each mooring dolphin is equipped with Quick Release Hooks. The mooring dolphins will be supported by driven steel pipe piles
    • The breasting and mooring dolphins will be connected through walkways. Walkways are steel bridges.
    • A trestle will provide access from the land area to the breasting dolphins.
    • Further mooring points will be placed consisting of a concrete base equipped with Quick Release Hooks.

 

3.2.Floating Storage and Regasification Unit (FSRU)

 

Accounting for the timetable towards 2020, where the Government of Cyprus will have to have natural gas available in the island’s energy mixture for environmental constraints, the proposed vessel can be a converted/modified FSRU. The construction of a newly build vessel will require a considerable amount of time and cost and would increase the risk of delays.

 

The availability of surplus LNG carriers creates a timing window during which there will be fierce competition with subsequent benefits for the buyer. Conversions are relatively proven and technical risk is considered low. The floating solutions provide higher flexibility.

 

Furthermore, compared to the onshore solutions, it creates a lower financing burden, lower complexity in the implementation phase and shorter project construction timescale.

 

Floating Storage & Regasification Units are vessels similar in design to a Floating Storage Unit (FSU) but they also have on board facilities for regasifying LNG from its liquid storage facility or from a docked LNG carrier. 

 

On board the vessel is a regasification system, which raises the temperature and vaporises the LNG back to gaseous phase for subsequent transport on to shore.  The vessel is commonly moored at a specified distance offshore (for safety reasons) allowing operators to store and vaporise the LNG on ship before sending ashore, commonly via either a sub-sea pipeline or a pipeline installed along a jetty arrangement.

 

A typical FSRU vessel normally has a capacity in the region of 130,000m3 to 150,000 m3, which should be the LNG storage capacity after conversion.  The LNG tanks will store the LNG at -165°C and circa 2barg.

 

The storage capacity (of the ship and other elements of the natural gas delivery system) must satisfy the given Vassilikos Power Station (VPS) gas demand which will be equivalent to a number of days supply at a maximum operational flowrate of 155 T/hr.  This value of maximum flow and storage period is preliminary estimated circa 15 days and will be inherently linked to the ability to request and receive a new shipment of LNG.

 

This flowrate assumption is based on an all-day operational maximum flowrate, an unlikely event, a more likely ‘single day consumption’ would equate to an average of 100 T/hr. It is considered that the storage volumes must be considered alongside a robust delivery scheduling mechanism.

In response to a demand request the LNG is pumped from the storage tanks of the FSRU so that LNG enters the Booster Pump Suction Drum (BPSD) and is further distributed to the regasification trains. Each regasification train will typically comprise the following equipment:

  • LNG booster pump
  • LNG vaporizer
  • Boil-off Gas (BOG) re-condenser

 

The number of regasification trains in operation depends on the capacity requirement; it is considered that a duty/ standby arrangement should be considered.

 

LNG from storage tanks is supplied to the BPSD, which provides buffer capacity on the suction side for the booster pumps. The BPSD is also the return point if the booster pump(s) operate in recycle mode (e.g. during booster pump start-up). The BPSD is also the collection tank for re-condensed BOG.  BOG re-condensing is carried out by supplying compressed BOG to the re-condenser heat exchangers, where the BOG condenses against cold LNG supplied from the booster pumps before re-injecting back into the storage tanks.

 

The LNG Booster Pumps increase the LNG pressure to meet the required gas send-out pressure before the LNG is first sent through the BOG re-condenser and then through the LNG Vaporiser.

 

There is redundancy in many elements of the system and generally an N + 1 design philosophy should be adopted.  It is suggested that the design might feature three regasification trains to satisfy this redundancy requirement.

 

The LNG-C for nominated for conversion to an FSRU should undergo a thorough life extension assessment. Based on the outcome of this assessment a life extension program should be implemented to ensure that the structural integrity and the operability of the carrier will last for the duration of the project.

 

The principal of an N+1 regasification system along with multiple storage tanks should provide sufficient redundancy and capacity that when considered as part of a well-designed whole system should provide sufficient robustness to this part of the Natural Gas supply chain.

 

The gaseous phase natural gas will then be passed through the export facility which shall consist of a meter, High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS), isolation valves and the unloading arms.

 

The project meter on the FSRU should not be a fiscal meter so should likely only be used for inventory management.

 

The HIPPS system will act to provide over pressure protection to the systems downstream of the FSRU.  These systems are governed by several codes from API, ASME, IEC and ASME. 

 

The Natural Gas then leaves the FSRU using a flexible hose system consisting of typically at least three hoses.  This gives a duty-duty-standby arrangement thereby building redundancy into the export arms.  Each hose should be equipped with quick closing control valves which can act in the event of a failure or substantial relative movement. 

 

It is considered that within this part of the system redundancy should be addressed as fully as possible.  It should be noted that several safety systems exist which should act to shut off supply in the event of an emergency, however these systems must be present to ensure safe operation of the FSRU and the gas delivery system; and should only act to isolate the FSRU and shut down supply in the event of an emergency.

 

This element of the system should, with sufficient design scrutiny and monitoring, be capable of greater than 98% availability.

 

3.3.Jetty Borne Gas Pipeline

 

The pipeline will be above ground for a limited period whilst it is on the jetty.  This section will connect the mooring location of the FSRU with the shoreline.  The Natural Gas pipeline will be mounted on a pipe rack on the jetty.  This Jetty will be equipped to handle hazardous substances.

 

The pipeline could be subsea from ship to shoreline, however this would add significant distance when compared to the jetty solution and a Pipeline End Manifold (PLEM) would be required. Therefore a jetty based pipeline is preferred.

 

The jetty should be subject to controlled access and as such the pipeline should not be exposed to anyone who is not competent to be working around it.  This reduces the primary risk for any pipeline, third party intervention.  The arrangement and size of the pipeline on the rack is yet to be determined, though as per any pipeline there is expected to be no redundancy in the form a fully-sized spare pipeline.  The pipeline itself may be sized to accommodate a flowrate in excess of the current requirements, thus providing a degree of redundant capacity, though this is not considered necessary.

 

The pipeline will be made of suitably specified carbon steel and will be subject to industry standard coating and protection methods.  Beyond this the pipeline system will be stressed analysed to verify any weak point which can be addressed in detailed design. A suitable fire and gas detection philosophy shall be put in place to manage the risks associated to the jetty operation.

 

This element of the system should, with sufficient design scrutiny and monitoring, be capable of greater than 98% availability.

 

3.4.Onshore Gas Pipeline

 

The pipeline will, once it has left the jetty, be buried using normal trenching techniques for the remainder of the route up to the Onshore facilities Metering Station.  The pipeline should be designed according to ASME codes or other industry accepted international standard. Design to a suitable International standard such as ASME will provide assurance on all aspects of the design of a pipeline such that the integrity and safe and continued operation of the system is paramount.

 

The pipeline will be designed to accommodate inline inspection; this is a method of monitoring the condition of the pipeline without needing to de-commission it.  This is achieved through the use of a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG).  Using a system such as this requires the pipeline network to be designed in a certain way, this means including bends that can accommodate the passage of the PIG and the ability to attach at either end of the pipeline the PIG Launching and Receiving facilities.

 

A full Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) analysis should be performed to ensure that facility is designed to achieve an uptime of 98%. Critical spares holding should also be determined to minimise long term outages.

 

The pipeline will be directly connected to the storage array which is described in further detail in the next section.  This storage array if directly connected to the pipeline should be 100% available and will seek to provide a degree of redundancy to the supply pipeline system.

 

The pipeline shall be sized for the VPS primary, secondary and tertiary response requirements with regards to the delivery of electricity to the network.  The design to date has considered the transient requirement which was used along with the maximum and minimum flow requirements which will allow the pipeline to be sized to satisfy system demands.  Currently it is considered that a circa 300mm NB pipeline should satisfy the minimum project needs, though a larger pipeline may be considered to satisfy flow demands.

This element of the system should, with sufficient design scrutiny and monitoring, be capable of greater than 98% availability.

 

3.5.Pipeline Storage Array

 

The consideration of capacity needs to consider not only the capacity of the FSRU to store LNG but also the capacity of the pipeline system to store natural gas.  In gas network terminology this capacity is called the buffer capacity.  As it is considered that the current arrangement will not provide this buffer capacity in standard volume only then a storage arrangement is provided.  This buffer capacity will address the mismatch between the FSRU gas export dynamics and the VPS gas demand dynamics.

 

The pipeline array option will involve multiple pipeline lengths connected via a dedicated inlet and outlet header buried in close proximity to VPS. A large plot of land is required over which no construction could take place and would normally be controlled land.  It is currently estimated that this land requirement might be circa 40,000 m2.

 

The current proposal is that of a buried buffer array. It is currently proposed that this will consist of multiple ‘branches’ connected to the main supply via an inlet header and outlet header with an inbuilt bypass. Given the current requirements an arrangement featuring ‘branches’ sized at 900mm NB diameter pipeline 300m in length and will operate at the overall pipeline system pressure. Current understanding is that the regulator requires a storage volume of 125 T, it is estimated currently that the required equivalent length of pipeline is circa 6km (circa 20 fingers).

 

Further consideration will need to be given to the following issues:

 

  • Control mechanisms for this additional volume;
  • Both options assume the volume of the main pipeline in addition to the fingers of storage;
  • Maintenance and inspection regimes for the array;
  • Land requirements; and
  • Actual available volumes at lower operating pressures.

 

The Storage Array element of the system should, with sufficient design scrutiny and monitoring, be capable of greater than 98% availability.

 

3.6.Onshore Above Ground Installation (AGI) - Metering Station

 

The buried pipeline will terminate prior to the VPS delivery flange in a Metering station.  This AGI will contain the fiscal metering systems, some safety isolation systems and an Emergency Shutdown Valve (ESDV). 

 

This site shall consist of a scheme of meters installed and maintained to fiscal quality standards and which will contain built in redundancy.  This will most likely be achieved through a 3x50% arrangement.  This system will contain Gas Chromatography and Flow Computers to supply the necessary data for billing purposes and to assist in maintaining gas quality standards.

 

On the outlet of the AGI will be an ESDV that will protect the systems immediately downstream of this location.  This ESDV will be, by design, a single point of failure, in order for this asset to function as intend it cannot have redundancy.  However it is considered that this valve will be a sufficient Safety Integrity Level that it should function only in an event where it must function.  This valve will be requested to feature on the strategic spares list.

 

Also on the outlet of this facility shall be a connection suitable for a further network development during or after this project.  This connection shall be designed to accommodate network expansion with negligible interruption to the current system.

 

The onshore AGI element of the system should, with sufficient design scrutiny and monitoring, be capable of greater than 98% availability.

 

4.Project’s Layout Plan and Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

 

Attachment 1 & 2, respectively, show the Project’s Layout Plan and Process Flow Diagram.